Photography is all about capturing light. Whether it's the soft glow from a sunset or the stark shadows in an alleyway, understanding how to use light can elevate your photos from good to great. One tool that often perplexes newcomers but can be incredibly useful is the flash. This article serves as an introduction to flash photography, breaking down the basics of using both built-in and external flashes.
Understanding Built-in Flash:
Most entry-level DSLRs and compact cameras come equipped with a built-in flash. While they aren't as versatile as external units, understanding them can be a good stepping stone.
1. Pop-up Mechanism: Usually situated atop the camera body, it 'pops up' when needed, either manually or automatically, depending on the camera's settings.
2. Direct Light: Built-in flashes emit a direct beam of light onto your subject. While convenient, this can often result in a flat look with harsh shadows, especially if the subject is close.
Built-in Flash Tips:
- Distance: If you're photographing a person, don't get too close. The nearer the flash is to your subject, the harsher the light appears.
- Diffuse: Soften the flash's effect by using a tissue or translucent white plastic sheet in front of it. This acts as a diffuser, spreading the light more evenly.
Delving into External Flashes:
External flashes, often called 'speedlights', are separate units that usually attach to the camera's hot shoe. They're more powerful and versatile than built-in flashes.
1. Directional Light: One of the biggest advantages of external flashes is the ability to angle or 'bounce' the flash. By directing the flash towards a ceiling or wall, you can achieve a softer, diffused light that reduces harsh shadows.
2. Power Settings: External units generally have adjustable power settings. This means you can choose how intense the flash is, allowing for greater control over your lighting.
3. Off-Camera Flash: Some advanced setups involve taking the flash off the camera altogether, positioning it wherever desired, and triggering it remotely. This can create dynamic lighting effects and emulate studio setups.
Flash Modes Explained:
Understanding the modes on your flash can make a big difference. Here are the basics:
1. TTL (Through The Lens): The flash and the camera communicate to judge the scene's light requirements. The flash then adjusts its output to provide what's deemed appropriate. It's essentially an 'auto' mode for your flash.
2. Manual Mode: You decide the power level of the flash. This mode gives you the most control but requires a good understanding of light and your flash's capabilities.
3. Fill Flash: This mode is handy on bright days when the sun creates harsh shadows on faces. By using a little flash (even in daylight), you can 'fill in' those shadows for a more pleasing look.
4. Slow Sync: This combines a longer shutter speed with a burst of flash. It's great for capturing more of the background in low light while ensuring your primary subject is well-lit.
Avoiding Harsh Lighting:
Flash can often lead to stark contrasts and deep shadows. Here's how to mitigate that:
- Bounce It: If you're indoors with a light-coloured ceiling or walls, angle your external flash upwards or sideways. The light will hit the ceiling/wall and spread out, creating a much softer, even glow.
- Use a Diffuser: Attachable diffusers or 'softboxes' for speedlights spread the light out, softening the overall effect. They're especially handy for portraits.
- Dial It Down: If your flash allows, reduce its power. Sometimes, just a touch of light is all that's needed.
- Maintain Distance: The closer the flash is to the subject, the harsher the light. If using an off-camera flash, move it a bit further away if the light is too intense.
Examples for Better Understanding:
- Scenario 1: Imagine photographing a friend indoors, with a white ceiling above. Instead of pointing the external flash directly at them, angle it upwards, letting the light bounce off the ceiling. This creates a soft, flattering light, almost like the natural glow from a window.
- Scenario 2: You're at a party, capturing candid moments. Using direct flash might wash out faces. Instead, use a small softbox or diffuser attachment on your speedlight. It scatters the flash's light, ensuring faces are illuminated without being overpowering.
- Scenario 3: On a sunny day at the beach, you notice your family's faces are cast in shadow due to the overhead sun. Use fill flash mode. The subtle burst of light brightens up the faces without overpowering the natural sunlight.
In conclusion, while the world of flash photography might seem daunting, it's all about understanding and manipulating light. Start with the basics, practice regularly, and soon enough, you'll be wielding your flash like a pro, elevating your photography to new heights.